Sprint Interval Training (SIT) is a highly effective training method that involves short, intense bursts of exercise followed by periods of rest. It is distinct from other interval training methods like High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and aerobic interval training due to its focus on maximal or supramaximal efforts. SIT is typically reserved for athletes or individuals who have achieved a certain level of fitness and seek further improvements in their conditioning.
Sprint Interval Training (SIT) consists of intervals ranging from 10 to 30 seconds, performed at or above an individual’s peak fitness level. The goal is to prompt individuals to exceed their VO2max by engaging in exercises at power outputs or speeds surpassing their regular capacity, thus placing them in the realm of extreme exercise. A typical SIT protocol usually incorporates 10-12 repetitions of 30-second intervals, executed at 125% of an individual’s maximal aerobic power. These high-intensity exercises are interspersed with 4-minute recovery periods, ensuring a well-balanced work-to-rest ratio conducive to effective adaptation and enhanced performance. Nevertheless, variations in these work-to-rest ratios do exist. The crucial point to bear in mind is that Sprint Interval Training predominantly involves bursts of activity at 100% exertion.
One popular SIT protocol is the 30-20-10 method. In this approach, an individual performs a 30-second effort, followed by a 20-second effort at a higher intensity, and finally a maximum effort of 10 seconds. This cycle is repeated continuously for five minutes, with a two-minute rest period before repeating. The intensity levels are categorised as easy (30% of max running speed), moderate (60% of max running speed), and hard (90-100% of max running speed).
Research on the 30-20-10 protocol has shown significant improvements in aerobic fitness and performance. In one study by Gunnarsson and Bangsbo, participants who completed the 30-20-10 approach demonstrated enhanced 5K running times after a seven-week training intervention. Moreover, they also experienced lowered systolic blood pressure, highlighting the cardiovascular benefits of this training method.
Another SIT program worth considering is Tabata. Although widely recognised, it’s important to understand the original Tabata protocol and its limitations. The original Tabata training program involved eight sets of 20 seconds of high-intensity exercise with only 10 seconds of rest between sets. However, these high-intensity levels were specifically designed for trained athletes, making it challenging to replicate in a general population without accurate workload measurements.
To apply the Tabata protocol effectively, practitioners should ensure that the exercise intensity exhausts the subject within seven to eight sets. The participant should be unable to continue after the full dose of eight sets. To estimate the appropriate intensity, cycling for 50 seconds at the prescribed workload or completing at least six sets within four minutes can serve as indicators. Adjustments should be made based on the client’s performance to achieve the desired exhaustion level.
Tabata suggests three to four sessions per week, although a periodised approach is recommended to avoid overtraining. By tailoring the intensity and duration of the intervals, individuals can benefit from improvements in aerobic fitness, performance, and overall cardiovascular health.
In conclusion, Sprint Interval Training offers a unique and effective approach to maximising fitness gains. Whether following the 30-20-10 protocol or the original Tabata method, individuals can experience significant improvements in aerobic capacity and performance by pushing their limits with short, intense intervals. By carefully monitoring intensity levels and adapting the training program to individual needs, trainers can help their clients achieve remarkable results in a safe and efficient manner.
Written by Dr Luke Del Vecchio